*mDurance Estudio

How to use EMG at your centre

*mDurance Estudio

How to use EMG at your centre

*Bibliography

A tool based on science

Upper Body

Lin, Jiu-jenq, et al. "Functional activity characteristics of individuals with shoulder dysfunctions." Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 15.6 (2005): 576-586.

Shoulder-related dysfunction affects individuals’ ability to function independently and thus decreases quality of life. Functional task assessment is a key concern for a clinician in diagnostic assessment, outcome measurement, and planning of treatment programs. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability of the FASTRAK 3-dimensional (3-D) motion analysis and surface electromyography (sEMG) systems to analyze 3-D shoulder complex movements during functional tasks and compare motion patterns between subjects with and…

Continue reading here.

Thigpen, Charles A., et al. "Head and shoulder posture affect scapular mechanics and muscle activity in overhead tasks." Journal of Electromyography and kinesiology 20.4 (2010): 701-709.

Forward head and rounded shoulder posture (FHRSP) is theorized to contribute to alterations in scapular kinematics and muscle activity leading to the development of shoulder pain. However, reported differences in scapular kinematics and muscle activity in those with forward head and rounded shoulder posture are confounded by the presence of shoulder pain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare scapular kinematics and muscle activity in individuals free from shoulder pain, with and without FHRSP. Eighty…

Continue reading here.

Myers, Joseph B., et al. "Reflexive muscle activation alterations in shoulders with anterior glenohumeral instability." The American Journal of Sports Medicine 32.4 (2004): 1013-1021.

Patients with glenohumeral instability have proprioceptive deficits that are suggested to contribute to muscle activation alterations. Hypothesis Muscle activation alterations will be present in shoulders with anterior glenohumeral instability. Study Design: Posttest-only control group design. Methods: Eleven patients diagnosed with anterior glenohumeral instability were matched with 11 control subjects. Each subject received an external humeral rotation apprehension perturbation while reflexive muscle activation…

Continue reading here.

Huang, Tsun-Shun, et al. "Specific kinematics and associated muscle activation in individuals with scapular dyskinesis." Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery 24.8 (2015): 1227-1234.

Knowledge of the kinematics and associated muscular activity in individuals with scapular dyskinesis may provide insight into the injury mechanism and inform the planning of treatment strategies. We investigated scapular kinematics and associated muscular activation during arm movements in individuals with scapular dyskinesis. Methods: A visual-based palpation method was used to evaluate 82 participants with unilateral shoulder pain. Scapular movements during arm raising/lowering movements were classified…

Continue reading here.

Pirauá, André Luiz Torres, et al. "Electromyographic analysis of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles during push-ups on stable and unstable bases in subjects with scapular dyskinesis." Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 24.5 (2014): 675-681.

The present study was performed to assess the electromyographic activity of the scapular muscles during push-ups on a stable and unstable surface, in subjects with scapular dyskinesis. Muscle activation (upper trapezius [UT]; lower trapezius [LT]; upper serratus anterior [SA_5th]; lower serratus anterior [SA_7th]) and ratios (UT/LT; UT/SA_5th; UT/SA_7th) levels were determined by surface EMG in 30 asymptomatic men with scapular dyskinesis, during push-up performed on a stable and unstable surface. Multivariate…

Continue reading here.

Ou, Hsiang-Ling, et al. "Alterations of scapular kinematics and associated muscle activation specific to symptomatic dyskinesis type after conscious control." Manual Therapy 26 (2016): 97-103.

Scapular orientation and movements can affect the function of the shoulder. However, evidence is limited on whether symptomatic subjects can actively maintain the scapula in a neutral position through conscious control. Objective: To investigate whether symptomatic subjects with scapular dyskinesis can achieve optimal scapular movements and associated muscle activities through conscious control. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods: Sixty subjects with scapular dyskinesis (16 inferior angle pattern I, 16 medial…

Continue reading here.

Phadke, Vandana, and Paula M. Ludewig. "Study of the scapular muscle latency and deactivation time in people with and without shoulder impingement." Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 23.2 (2013): 469-475.

Changes in muscle activities are commonly associated with shoulder impingement and theoretically caused by changes in motor program strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess for differences in latencies and deactivation times of scapular muscles between subjects with and without shoulder impingement. Twenty-five healthy subjects and 24 subjects with impingement symptoms were recruited. Glenohumeral kinematic data and myoelectric activities using surface electrodes from upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius…

Continue reading here.

Ludewig, Paula M., and Thomas M. Cook. "Alterations in shoulder kinematics and associated muscle activity in people with symptoms of shoulder impingement." Physical therapy 80.3 (2000): 276-291.

Treatment of patients with impingement symptoms commonly includes exercises intended to restore “normal” movement patterns. Evidence that indicates the existence of abnormal patterns in people with shoulder pain is limited. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze glenohumeral and scapulothoracic kinematics and associated scapulothoracic muscle activity in a group of subjects with symptoms of shoulder impingement relative to a group of subjects without symptoms of shoulder …

Continue reading here.

Lower Body

Trulsson, Anna, et al. "Altered movement patterns and muscular activity during single and double leg squats in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injury." BMC musculoskeletal disorders 16.1 (2015): 28.

Individuals with Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury often show altered movement patterns, suggested to be partly due to impaired sensorimotor control. Here, we therefore aimed to assess muscular activity during movements often used in ACL-rehabilitation and to characterize associations between deviations in muscular activity and specific altered movement patterns, using and further exploring the previously developed Test for substitution Patterns (TSP)…

Continue reading here.

Boerboom, Alexander L., et al. "Atypical hamstrings electromyographic activity as a compensatory mechanism in anterior cruciate ligament deficiency." Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy 9.4 (2001): 211-216.

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency may cause functional instability of the knee (noncopers), while other patients compensate and perform at the same level as before injury (copers). This pilot study investigated whether there is a compensatory electromyographic (EMG) activity of the hamstrings in copers, noncopers and control patients. Ten patients with an ACL deficiency were equally divided into two groups of copers and noncopers. All patients underwent gait analysis with EMG of six muscles around the knee. Ten healthy …

Continue reading here.

Kirnap, Mehmet, et al. "The efficacy of EMG-biofeedback training on quadriceps muscle strength in patients after arthroscopic meniscectomy." The New Zealand Medical Journal (Online) 118.1224 (2005).

Aims In 40 patients, we attempted to investigate the efficacy of electromyography biofeedback (EMG-B) on quadriceps muscle strength after arthroscopic meniscectomy. Methods The patients were randomly divided into two groups each consisting of 20 subjects. For the control group, a classical exercise program was given (five sessions of EMG-B application for 2 weeks postoperatively). Range of motions, Lysholm knee score, EMG electrical activity values of vastus medialis obliques (VMO), and vastus…

Continue reading here.

Salomoni, Sauro, et al. "Reduced maximal force during acute anterior knee pain is associated with deficits in voluntary muscle activation." PloS one 11.8 (2016): e0161487.

Although maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force is reduced during pain, studies using interpolated twitch show no consistent reduction of voluntary muscle drive. The present study aimed to test if the reduction in MVC force during acute experimental pain could be explained by increased activation of antagonist muscles, weak voluntary activation at baseline, or changes in force direction. Twenty-two healthy volunteers performed maximal voluntary isometric knee extensions before, during, and after the effects of hypertonic (pain)…

Continue reading here.

Hollman, John H., et al. "Frontal and transverse plane hip kinematics and gluteus maximus recruitment correlate with frontal plane knee kinematics during single-leg squat tests in women." Clinical biomechanics 29.4 (2014): 468-474.

Background Hip muscle dysfunction may be associated with knee valgus that contributes to problems like patellofemoral pain syndrome. The purpose of this study was to (1) compare knee and hip kinematics and hip muscle strength and recruitment between “good” and “poor” performers on a single-leg squat test developed to assess hip muscle dysfunction and (2) examine relationships between hip muscle strength, recruitment and frontal plane knee kinematics to see which variables correlated with knee valgus during the test. Methods Forty…

Continue reading here.

Sole, Gisela, et al. "Altered muscle activation following hamstring injuries." British Journal of Sports Medicine 46.2 (2012): 118-123.

The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity of gluteal and thigh muscles of sportspeople with a recent hamstring injury with uninjured controls during a weight-bearing task. Study design Cross-sectional. Setting University laboratory. Participants 16 participants with a hamstring injury (hamstring-injured group, HG) and 18 control participants (control group (CG)) participated in the study. Main outcome measure The EMG activity of gluteal, quadriceps and hamstring muscles was recorded …

Continue reading here.

Wyndow, Narelle, et al. "Neuromotor control of the lower limb in Achilles tendinopathy." Sports Medicine 40.9 (2010): 715-727.

Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common injury in running sports. While the exact aetiology of Achilles injury is still unclear, foot orthoses are often effectively employed in the conservative management of the condition. Foot orthoses have traditionally been provided for people with AT on the basis that they may reduce the rearfoot eversion associated with excessive foot pronation. This increased rearfoot motion is thought to produce excessive Achilles tendon loads. To date, the available literature indicates that foot orthoses have small and …

Continue reading here.

Reid, Duncan, et al. "Electromyographic analysis of an eccentric calf muscle exercise in persons with and without Achilles tendinopathy." Physical Therapy in Sport 13.3 (2012): 150-155.

To compare surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles between persons with and without Achilles tendinopathy (AT) during an eccentric muscle exercise in different knee joint positions. Design Repeated measures design. Setting Research laboratory. Participants (n= 18) diagnosed with AT and 18 control subjects were recruited. Main outcome measures Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle activity was examined by surface (EMG) during extended and flexed knee joint …

Continue reading here.

Lumbar and Cervical

Arab, Amir M., et al. "Altered muscular activation during prone hip extension in women with and without low back pain." Chiropractic & manual therapies 19.1 (2011): 18.

Altered movement pattern has been associated with the development of low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity pattern of the ipsilateral erector spinae (IES) and contralateral erectorspinae (CES), gluteus maximus (GM) and hamstring (HAM) muscles during prone hip extension (PHE) test in women with and without LBP. A cross-sectional non-experimental design was used. Methods: Convenience sample of 20 female participated in the study. Subjects were categorized into…

Continue reading here.

Hall, Leanne, et al. "Immediate effects of co-contraction training on motor control of the trunk muscles in people with recurrent low back pain." Journal of electromyography and kinesiology 19.5 (2009): 763-773.

Although deficits in the activation of abdominal muscles are present in people with low back pain (LBP), this can be modified with motor training. Training of deep abdominal muscles in isolation from the other trunk muscles, as an initial phase of training, has been shown to improve the timing of activation of the trained muscles, and reduce symptoms and recurrence of LBP. The aim of this study was to determine if training of the trunk muscles in a non-isolated manner can restore motor control of these muscles in people with LBP. Ten…

Continue reading here.

Kim, Si-hyun, et al. "Comparison of erector spinae and hamstring muscle activities and lumbar motion during standing knee flexion in subjects with and without lumbar extension rotation syndrome." Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 23.6 (2013): 1311-1316.

The aim of this study was to compare the activity of the erector spinae (ES) and hamstring muscles and the amount and onset of lumbar motion during standing knee flexion between individuals with and without lumbar extension rotation syndrome. Sixteen subjects with lumbar extension rotation syndrome (10 males, 6 females) and 14 healthy subjects (8 males, 6 females) participated in this study. During the standing knee flexion, surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscle activity, and surface EMG electrodes…

Continue reading here.

Colloca, C. J., & Hinrichs, R. N. (2005). The biomechanical and clinical significance of the lumbar erector spinae flexion-relaxation phenomenon: a review of literature. Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics, 28(8), 623-631.

The aim of this study was to review the biomedical literature to ascertain the biomechanical and clinical significance of the lumbar erector spinae flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP). Data Sources Index Medicus via PubMed, the Noble Science Library’s e-journal archives, and the Manual Alternative and Natural Therapy Index System databases were searched using the same search terms. Discussion: The presence of the FRP during trunk flexion represents myoelectric silence consistent with increased load…

Continue reading here.

Tsang, Sharon MH, et al. "Association of electromyographic activation patterns with pain and functional disability in people with chronic neck pain." European journal of applied physiology 118.7 (2018): 1481-1492.

This study examined the activation patterns of the cervical and thoracic muscles in people with and without chronic neck pain during functional activities and their associations with pain intensity and functional disability. Methods: Thirty-four adults with chronic neck pain and 34 asymptomatic adults were recruited. They were requested to perform active cervical movements and an upper limb lifting task. Electromyographic activation patterns (EMG) of bilateral upper trapezius, cervical erector spinae, sternocleidomastoid, and thoracic erector…

Continue reading here.

Pinheiro, Carina Ferreira, Marina Foresti dos Santos, and Thais Cristina Chaves. "Flexion–relaxation ratio in computer workers with and without chronic neck pain." Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 26 (2016): 8-17.

This study evaluated the flexion–relaxation phenomenon (FRP) and flexion-relaxation ratios (FR-ratios) using surface electromyography (sEMG) of the cervical extensor muscles of computer workers with and without chronic neck pain, as well as of healthy subjects who were not computer users. This study comprised 60 subjects 20–45 years of age, of which 20 were computer workers with chronic neck pain (CPG), 20 were computer workers without neck pain (NPG), and 20 were control individuals who do not use computers for work and…

Continue reading here.

Pelvic Floor

Glazer, Howard I., Lauri Romanzi, and Margaret Polaneczky. "Pelvic floor muscle surface electromyography." J Reprod Med 44 (1999): 779-782.

To study the reliability and clinical predictive validity of pelvic floor muscle surface electromyography (sEMG) for use in early detection and prophylaxis of urogynecologic disorders. STUDY DESIGN: Fiftyseven women ranging from 19 to 69 years of age completed a written questionnaire and underwent digital pelvic examination followed by pelvic floor muscle sEMG using an intravaginal sensor. Thirty-seven subjects underwent repeat evaluations one week or more later. RESULTS: sEMG data demonstrated significant…

Continue reading here.

Pedraza, Rodrigo, et al. "Pelvic muscle rehabilitation: a standardized protocol for pelvic floor dysfunction." Advances in Urology 2014 (2014).

Pelvic floor dysfunction syndromes present with voiding, sexual, and anorectal disturbances, which may be associated with one another, resulting in complex presentation. Thus, an integrated diagnosis and management approach may be required. Pelvic muscle rehabilitation (PMR) is a noninvasive modality involving cognitive reeducation, modification, and retraining of the pelvic floor and associated musculature. We describe our standardized PMR protocol for the management of pelvic floor dysfunction syndromes. Pelvic Muscle …

Continue reading here.

Marshall, P., and B. Murphy. "The validity and reliability of surface EMG to assess the neuromuscular response of the abdominal muscles to rapid limb movement." Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 13.5 (2003): 477-489.

The transversus abdominus muscle (TrA) has been demonstrated to be active prior to rapid movements of the upper and lower limbs. This activity is termed feed forward motivation. The lack of feed-forward activation for TrA has been demonstrated in subjects with low back pain. The measures used for investigation of TrA function have been fine-wire needle EMG. This limits the practical application of TrA study due to the cost and level of specialisation required for this technique. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity…

Continue reading here.

Madill, Stéphanie J., Marie-Andrée Harvey, and Linda McLean. "Women with SUI demonstrate motor control differences during voluntary pelvic floor muscle contractions." International Urogynecology Journal 20.4 (2009): 447-459.

Introduction and hypothesis To compare maximum abdominal and pelvic floor muscle (PFM) electromyographic (EMG) and intravaginal pressure (IVP) amplitudes and muscle activation patterns during voluntary PFM contractions between women with and without stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Methods: Twenty-eight continent women and 44 women with SUI performed single and repeated PFM contractions in supine. Surface EMG data were recorded simultaneously with IVP. Maximum EMG and IVP amplitudes and ensemble…

Continue reading here.

Voorham, Jeroen C., et al. "The effect of EMG biofeedback assisted pelvic floor muscle therapy on symptoms of the overactive bladder syndrome in women: a randomized controlled trial." Neurourology and urodynamics 36.7 (2017): 1796-1803.

The overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is defined as urinary urgency, usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia, with or without urgency urinary incontinence. Biofeedback‐assisted pelvic muscle therapy (BAPFMT) is a first‐line treatment option for…

Continue reading here.

Smith, Michelle D., Michel W. Coppieters, and Paul W. Hodges. "Postural response of the pelvic floor and abdominal muscles in women with and without incontinence." Neurourology and urodynamics 26.3 (2007): 377-385.

To determine whether activity of the pelvic floor (PF) and abdominal muscles differs between continent and incontinent women in response to a postural perturbation with a moderately full or empty bladder. Methods: Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the PF and abdominal muscles was recorded with surface electrodes prior to and after a postural perturbation in which a 1 kg weight was dropped 30 cm into a bucket held by the subject. Perturbations were applied to the trunk in trials in which the timing of the weight drop was …

Continue reading here.